Virtual Gallery of Historic Fredericton

Early Paintings and Prints, 1800-1900

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View of Fredericton, NB, 1817, by John Elliott Woolford, NSM.jpg "View of Fredericton, NB, 1817". Artist: John E. Woolford, published in John Elliott Woolford, Sketches Of Nova Scotia (1817). Credit: Nova Scotia Museum/78.45.116.

View of Fredericton, NB, 1817, from across the river by John Elliott Woolford, NSM.jpg "View of Fredericton, NB, 1817, from across the river". Artist: John E. Woolford, published in John Elliott Woolford, Sketches Of Nova Scotia (1817). Credit: Nova Scotia Museum/78.45.115.

Fredericton 1820.jpg "A view of Fredericton, the capital of New Brunswick, before 1820. A quiet town well up the long St. John River". Perhaps the earliest known view of Fredericton, dated ca. 1818, painted in 1925 by Dr. John Clarence Webster from the original in the possession of the Misses Odell of Halifax, and said to have been made by Col. Bradford of the Royal Engineers. Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-27421.

Government House burned in 1825 fire J E Woolford.jpg "First Government House, Fredericton", ca. 1820. Artist: John Elliott Woolford. Brown wash over pencil. The residence of the first Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick, Thomas Carleton, before it burned in the great fire of 1825. It was built in 1787. Credit: Royal Ontario Museum/960.273.4.

View of Fredericton, 1823, anonymous, Beaverbrook.jpg "View of Fredericton, 1823". Artist: Anonymous, "M". Oil on canvas. Credit: Beaverbrook Art Gallery/1959.27.

Fredericton by John Hewett.jpg "Fredericton, New Brunswick from the road to the Oromocto River", 9 July 1824. Artist: John Hewett. Watercolour over pencil with scratching out on paper. John Hewett was a captain in the 52nd Regiment of Foot based in Saint John and Fredericton, 1823-1825. The vantage point is the road to Oromocto along the St. John River near the site of the present Agricultural Research Station. It is a similar perspective to that used by Robert Petley in later picture in this virtual gallery. Credit: Beaverbrook Art Gallery/1993.60.

W Gauci [nd] View of Kings College NYPL Emmett Collection EM4833 (3K) "View of King's College, Province of New Brunswick, North America", 1 January 1829. Lithograph by W. Gauci. Artist: Rev. Abraham Wood. Printed by Engelmann, Graf, Coindet and Co., and published by Colnaghi, Son and Co., Pall Mall East, London. "Dedicated to His Excellency Major General Sir Howard Douglas, Bart. K.C.B., Chancellor to the President of Council". King's College was designed by the architect John E. Woolford and completed in late 1828 with an official opening date of 1 January 1829. It is known now as the "Old Arts Building" or by its official name of "Sir Howard Douglas Hall" of the University of New Brunswick. Note the differences in appearance of the college between this print and the Bartlett print below, dated 1842. Credit: New York Public Library/Emmett Collection/EM 4833.

Fredericton by John E Woolford.jpg "View of Fredericton from the River", ca. 1830. Artist: John E. Woolford. Watercolour with scratching out on paper. Curator Ian G. Lumsden states that several versions exist of this watercolour attributed to Woolford. Kings Landing holds a less-finished version acquired in the same auction as this one and the Provincial Archives holds a George Taylor photograph of another variant. The most prominent buildings shown are, from left to right, the Market Hall (or weigh house) with the cupola, Col. John Saunders' brick home, the tree-shrouded roofline of the Officer's Barracks, and the sprawling wooden York Hotel on the waterfront. Credit: Beaverbrook Art Gallery/1976.1

New Government House, Fredericton 1831, by Lady Mary Love.jpg "New Government House, Frederickton, N.B.", 1831. Lithograph by Louis Haghe. Artist: Lady Mary Love. Government House was built in 1828 to serve as the official residence of the Lieutenant-Governor. John E. Woolford was the architect. Published in Joseph Bouchette, The British Dominions in North America (London, 1831 and 1832). Mary (Heaviside) Love was the wife of Lt-Col. James Frederick Love of the 52nd Regiment. Though signed simply "by a Lady", this is generally attributed to her now though it was formerly attributed Lady Anna Maria Head. Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-23443.

Fredericton, Barracks and Market House, 1832, NAC C-1881.jpg "Barracks and Market House, Fredericton", 1832. Lithograph by Louis Haghe. Artist: Lady Mary Love. Published in Joseph Bouchette, The British Dominions in North America (London, 1831 and 1832). Though signed simply "by a Lady", this is generally attributed to her now though it was formerly attributed Lady Anna Maria Head. Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-1881.

Winter scene in Fredericton, 1833, by W. P. Kay (coloured).jpg "A Winter Scene in Fredericton", 1833. Lithograph by Robert T. Boone (Day & Haghe Lithographers). Artist: W.P. Kay. Published in Sketches in New Brunswick showing the Nature, & Description of the Land in the Tract Purchase by the N.B. & N.S. Land Co. in the Year 1833 (London: Ackermann, 1836). Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-7161.

Winter view from the company's office, St. Mary's, NB, 1833, by W.P. Kay, NAC.jpg "Winter view from the Company's Office, St. Mary's opposite Fredericton, Looking up the River St. John", 1833. Lithograph by S. Russell (Day & Haghe Lithographers). Artist: Philip Harry and W.P. Kay. Published in Sketches in New Brunswick showing the Nature, & Description of the Land in the Tract Purchase by the N.B. & N.S. Land Co. in the Year 1833 (London: Ackermann, 1836). Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-21958.

Officers' Barracks at Fredericton, 1833, NAC.jpg "Officers' Barracks at Fredericton", Winter 1834. Lithograph by S. Russell (Day & Haghe Lithographers). Artist: W.P. Kay from a sketch by John Campbell. Captain John Campbell was the son of the Lieutenant-Governor Sir Archibald Campbell and his father's aide-de-camp. Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-41071.

New Brunswick Fashionables, Jan 1834, after John Campbell (Beaverbrook)b.jpg "New Brunswick Fashionables!!!", January 1834. Lithograph by J.W. Giles. Artist: John Campbell. The large building at the left with the market hay scales is the "Tank House" which held a water tank for fighting fires. City council met upstairs. It was built about 1825 on the site of the present City Hall. The Officers' Mess is the large building at the far right with the fence. The Governor's sleigh, drawn by four horses, is at the right; William Hunter Odell and his sister ride across the right foreground; and the sleigh of Archdeacon Coster's sister is upset in the middle. Published by Francis Beverly, bookseller and binder, Fredericton. This work is sometimes attributed to Campbell's sister Helen Maria Campbell. Credit: Beaverbrook Art Gallery.

Helen Maria Campbell [1835] Indian Village near Fredericton "Indian Village near Fredericton", ca. 1835. Watercolour over pencil by Helen Maria Campbell. She was the daughter of Sir Archibald Campbell, Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick from 1831 to 1837, and sister of John Campbell, artist of the preceding image. This watercolour sold at auction at Sothebys in 2003. Credit: private collection.

Fredericton, Collegiate School and Christ Church, 1835, by George Neilson Smith, Beaverbrook.jpg "The Collegiate School and Christ Church", 1835. Artist: George Neilson Smith. Watercolour and ink over pencil. Credit: Beaverbrook Art Gallery/1966.2.

Emma Carter 1835 Major W N Orange's Cariole at Fredericton - McCord M978.83.5.jpg "Major W. N. Orange's Cariole at Fredericton, New Brunswick", 1835. Artist: Emma Carter. Watercolour. Credit: McCord Museum/M978.83.5.

Fredericton from the Oromocto Road after Robert Petley.jpg "Fredericton, N.B. from the Oromocto Road", 1837. Drawing and lithograph by Lt. Robert Petley, printed by Charles Joseph Hullmandel, and published by J. Dickinson, London. Credit: New Brunswick Museum, Webster Canadiana Collection.

Approach to Fredericton from Saint John, June 1840, by Alexander C. Mercer, NAC.jpg "Approach to Fredericton from Saint John, June 1840". Watercolour over pencil from memory by Lt-Col. Alexander Cavalie Mercer. Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-13792.

Fredericton, scene on the St. John river, including Government House, 1840, NAC.jpg "Scene on the Bank of the St. John's River from the end of Fredericton looking toward Springfield - On the left is part of Government House", 23 June 1840. Watercolour over pencil by Lt-Col. Alexander Cavalie Mercer. Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-13791.

Fredericton from beyond the College, 1842.jpg "Fredericton - New Brunswick", 1842. Steel engraving by James Baylis Allen. Artist: William Henry Bartlett. Published in Nathaniel P. Willis, Canadian Scenery Illustrated (London: George Virtue, 1842), volume II. The view is from the edge of Forest Hill. The large building at the left is King's College. The church spires, the lighthouse by the river's edge, and Government House faintly visible at the extreme left, are also recognizable. Credit: Rob Fisher.

Bartlett 1842 The Green at Fredericton.jpg "The Green at Fredericton", 1842. Steel engraving by James Charles Armytage. Artist: William Henry Bartlett. Published in Nathaniel P. Willis, Canadian Scenery Illustrated (London: George Virtue, 1842), volume II. Credit: Rob Fisher.

Bartlett 1842 Fredericton from across the river 1842 - web.jpg "Fredericton from the opposite side of the River", 1842. Steel engraving by William Mossman. Artist: William Henry Bartlett. Published in Nathaniel P. Willis, Canadian Scenery Illustrated (London: George Virtue, 1842), volume II. Credit: Rob Fisher.

Government House, Fredericton, ca. 1842, Bartlett, McCord.jpg "The Governor's House, Fredericton", 1842. Steel engraving by John Cousen. Artist: William Henry Bartlett. Published in Nathaniel P. Willis, Canadian Scenery Illustrated (London: George Virtue, 1842), volume II. Print photographed about 1910. Credit: McCord Museum/MP-0000.616.10.

Putnam House, Fredericton, by George Neilson Smith, 1842, Beaverbrook.jpg "The Putnam House, Fredericton", 1842. Artist: George Neilson Smith. Watercolour and ink over pencil. It was the house of Mrs. Charles S. Putnam, and known as "Willow House". Credit: Beaverbrook Art Gallery/1966.1.

Christ Church Cathedral in Fredericton, ca. 1850, by Lady Anna Head.jpg "Christchurch Cathedral, Fredericton", ca. 1850. Lithograph by R. Carrick (William Day & Sons Lithographers). Artist: Lady Anna Maria Head. Construction began on the cathedral in 1845 and it was completed in 1853. It is described often as the first Cathedral of the Church of England built in North America, and the first Cathedral of entirely new construction built since the Norman Conquest of 1066. Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-41061.

Fredericton Ice in winter 1858 LINews.jpg Ice build-up in the St. John River at Fredericton, winter 1857, by the Beckwith and Marsh Lumber Mill where artist Edward John Russell worked as a book-keeper. This is one four sketches by Russell of the ice break-up published by the Illustrated London News, 23 May 1857. Artist: Edward John Russell. Credit: public domain.

Anonymous 1860 Prince arrives at Fredericton 1860 - ILN 22 Sep 1860 web (3K) "The Prince's Arrival at Fredericton", 1860. Artist and engraver unknown. The tour of British North America by the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) in 1860 was the social event of the year in Fredericton--perhaps even the century. He was grandly feted by the province, with this print showing his arrival in Fredericton aboard the steamboat Forest Queen. Published in the Illustrated London News, 22 September 1860. Credit: Rob Fisher.

Fredericton, Provincial Exhibition Palace, 1864, NAC.jpg "Provincial Exhibition Palace, Fredericton, 1864, Matthew Stead Esq. Architecht". Lithograph by Edward John Russell. Artist or Photographer: Edward John Russell. The Exhibition Palace was one of the largest and most ornate wooden buildings in existence when it was completed in 1864. It burned to the ground in 1877. Credit: Library and Archives Canada/C-40815.

Juliana Horatia Ewing - Back Street in Fredericton 25 Oct 1867 LAC C126436 b.jpg "Back Street in Fredericton", 25 October 1867. Watercolour by Juliana Horatia Ewing. According to art historian Donna McDonald, the view is probably University Avenue or Church Street. Ewing herself described it as "a tolerably successful water color of the broad street with its quaint wooden houses & one of the huge magnificent pines that remain here & there in the town - trees of the old forest as people say". Credit: Provincial Archives of New Brunswick (Reproduced in Illustrated News by Donna McDonald).

Juliana Horatia Ewing - Cathedral from near Beach Mount 17 Oct 1867 LAC C125771.jpg "Cathedral from near Beech Mount", 17 October 1867. Watercolour by Juliana Horatia Ewing. Beechmount was the residence of the lawyer and amateur artist John Henry Phair on Regent Street. Credit: Wakefield District Library, England (Reproduced in Illustrated News by Donna McDonald).

Juliana Horatia Ewing - Fredericton from the flats 24 Oct 1867 LAC C1249923.jpg "Fredericton from the Flats", 24 October 1867. Watercolour by Juliana Horatia Ewing. A view of the broad sweep of the river toward Fredericton, from the flats below the town. The logs collected in the foreground are probably waiting for milling at John Morrison's steam saw mill or the Guy Stewart and Co. steam saw mill. Credit: Wakefield District Library, England (Reproduced in Illustrated News by Donna McDonald).

Juliana Horatia Ewing - Fredericton from the other side 27 Sep 1867 LAC C125774.jpg "Fredericton from the other side of the river", 27 September 1867. Watercolour by Juliana Horatia Ewing. The foreground shows her husband Alexander Ewing sketching. The Church of England Cathedral is prominent as is the tall spire of the Methodist Church to the right. Credit: Wakefield District Library, England (Reproduced in Illustrated News by Donna McDonald).

Juliana Horatia Ewing - Our Window 1867 LAC C125020.jpg "Our Window", 1867. Watercolour by Juliana Horatia Ewing. The view of the St. John River from the window of her house, "Reka Dom", on Waterloo Row in Fredericton. It shows the horse ferry, propelled by a horse on a treadmill, coming across the river to pick up a passenger. At the far right is a woodboat, a common sight on the river. Credit: Wakefield District Library, England (Reproduced in Illustrated News by Donna McDonald).

Juliana Horatia Ewing - Fredericton from the river Jan-Feb 1868 LAC C125012.jpg "Fredericton from the river", January-February 1868. Watercolour over pencil by Juliana Horatia Ewing. The Church of England cathedral is easily identifiable marking a point of reference in this winter view from the frozen river. Credit: Wakefield District Library, England (Reproduced in Illustrated News by Donna McDonald).

Juliana Horatia Ewing - Our Street 21 Sep 1867 LAC C125773.jpg "Our Street", 21 September 1867. Monochrome portrait, sepia over pencil, by Juliana Horatia Ewing. This work portrays Waterloo Row with her home, "Reka Dom", at the far end of the street. Telegraph poles make an early appearance in the picture and a tall bird feeder is also prominent. Her husband Alexander Ewing is walking down the street. Credit: Wakefield District Library, England (Reproduced in Illustrated News by Donna McDonald).

View from Hawthorne Hill, Fredericton "View from Hawthorne Hill, River St. John", 1872. Anonymous engraver, published in Canadian Illustrated News, 18 May 1872. The view is probably from the estate "Silver Falls" or "Hawthorne Hill", located on the road up Forest Hill which was also called Hawthorne Hill for the hawthorns which lined the road up the hill. Silver Falls had been the estate of the Hon. C. J. Peters (who called it "The Rocks") and the Cloppers before George Botsford bought it. Albert F. Woodbridge purchased it in 1882 and donated it to serve as the Institute for the Deaf and Dumb. The house burned about 1884 and was replaced with a 3-story brick structure noted for its rooftop cupola with a commanding view of the countryside surrounding Fredericton (see the panoramic photo from the cupola in the 1860-1930 gallery). The Institute closed in 1902 after a provincial commission of inquiry. Captain H. F. G. Woodbridge described the fountain in this picture in 1934: To my mind, the most interesting feature of this residence was the fountain and grotto. The design of the whole was distinctive and unique. A large basin some sixteen feet in diameter, with a central depth of some three feet was situated at the immediate crest of the terrace, as a background, a well-trimmed hedge of cedar and spruce was placed to conform to the circular basin of the fountain. A Rockery placed in the centre of the fountain was surmounted by an iron pedestal supporting a bowl with a diameter of approximately four feet and perched in the centre with its wings out-flapped was a life-sized swan with its graceful neck curved upward and through its mouth the water from the spring a quarter of a mile back in the woods, poured in a beautiful spray; the swan and pedestal with its bowl were of cast iron and painted white (from a talk to the York-Sunbury Historical Society, 21 March 1934). Credit: Library and Archives Canada.

Fredericton, ca. 1880 "Fredericton, NB, 1875". Engraved by Eugene Haberer, published in Canadian Illustrated News, 27 March 1875. Credit: Library and Archives Canada.

Province House.jpg "View of Province Hall and Public Offices", 1880. Lithograph by E. W. Bouvé of Boston; from a drawing made prior to 1845. Province House, built in 1802 and burned 25 February 1880, held the House of Assembly, Legislative Council, and Supreme Court of New Brunswick. The building to the left, which still stands, was the Provincial Secretary's Office, and the building to the right was the Crown Land Office. Beyond them to the left are Christ Church (built in 1794 and replaced by the Church of England Cathedral in 1853) and the Collegiate School. Credit: Provincial Archives of New Brunswick/P1-5.

Elisabeth S Tucker 1895 The Old Barracks for J H Ewing Leaves (5K) "The Old Barracks at Fredericton", 1895. Artist: Elisabeth S. Tucker. Reproduced in Tucker's book Leaves from Juliana Horatia Ewing's "Canada Home", (Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1896), a tribute to the artist and author of children's books who had lived in Fredericton from 1867 to 1869. Credit: Rob Fisher.

Juliana Horatia Ewing - Ruins of Rose Hall from Elizabeth Tucker's book (8K) "Ruins of Old Rose Hall", 1895. Artist: Elisabeth S. Tucker. Reproduced in Tucker's book Leaves from Juliana Horatia Ewing's "Canada Home", (Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1896). Juliana Horatia Ewing and her husband lived in Rose Hall in 1869, which was their third home in Fredericton. It had been the property of General Benedict Arnold in the 1780s when he had lived in Fredericton after the American Revolution. Rose Hall burned to the ground in 1886, though the coach house survived and became a residence in its own right. Tucker included two sketches of the ruins in her book. Credit: Rob Fisher.




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